Monday, July 8, 2019

Article 1 Section 5

Section 5

1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with theConcurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire ofone fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Article 1 Section 4

Section 4

1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.
2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,5 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Article 1 Section 3

Section 3

1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,3 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of thesecond Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.4
3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
7: Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Article 1 Section 2

Section 2

1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.2  The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed onefor every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolinafive, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Article 1 Section one

Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Summary: The Constitution
of the United States of America
Approved by the Libertarian Party of TX, Brazos County, 7/06/2019.
(Together, the Declaration (7/04/1776) and the Constitution (1787), with Amendments, are America’s supreme Laws.)

The US rejects British rule for not respecting the Rights of each Person to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.

The federal government has three branches: Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.

Preamble: We the People, in order to secure Liberty, do ordain and establish this Constitution
Article 1 (Legislature is the 1st Branch)
1. All legislative Powers are vested in a Congress, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
2. House members are 25 & up, elected every 2 years. (Am.14.2 changed the method of taking census.)
3. The Senate has 2 members from each state. They are 30 & up, elected by their State legislature. (Am.17 changed this to, elected by the People.) The Chair of the Senate is the Vice President. The Senate shall try all Impeachments.
4. States decide method of electing Congress. (Am.20)
5. Congress uses their own Rules for meetings.
6. Congressmen cannot hold any other Office.
7. All Bills must be passed by Congress. Tax or Fee Bills must start in the House. President veto can be overridden by 2/3 vote of Congress.

8. Congress has only a few enumerated Powers – Taxing*, Money, Mail, Patents, Courts, Military & Naturalization. (Am. 9  & 10 further enforces these limits.) (*Am.16.)
9. Further limits Congress’s Ar.1.8 Powers: Habeas Corpus -- no imprisonment without court order. Bill of Attainder – no punishment for a crime without a trail. No ex post facto law – no laws can be predatedDirect taxes to be the same* per person. (*Am.16 changed this to an Income Tax.) Laws have to treat States and People equally. (Am.16)
10. States cannot coin Money or wage War.

Article 2 (Executive is the 2nd Branch)
1. The executive Power is the President. President is 35 & up, elected every 4 years, by Electoral College, which gives each State same # of votes as # of reps they have in Congress. Vice President was the person with the 2nd most votes (Am.12 made President and Vice President a joint vote.) (Am.25 sets the line of succession for President.)
2. President heads Military, has cabinet, gives Pardons & appoints supreme Court Judges, with Senate’s approval.
3. Pres. shall make recommendations to Congress, receive Ambassadors, execute Laws and Commission Officers.
4. All Officers of the US can be Impeached for Treason, Bribery and other high Crimes and removed from Office

Article 3 (Judiciary is the 3rd Branch)
1. The judicial Power of the US is vested in one
supreme Court and lesser Courts.
Judges, with good Behavior, can serve for life.
2. Details the type of cases that can be heard.
The Trial for all Crimes, except Impeachment,
shall be by Jury. (See Ar.1.3 & Am.11)
3. Defines what the crime of Treason is.

Article 4 (Concerns the States.)
1. All States shall respect the Laws of other States.
2. Citizens in one State shall be treated fairly by
citizens of another State.
3. New states may be admitted.
4. States shall have a Republican form of Government
and be protected from Invasion & domestic Violence.

Article 5 (Amendments.)
Amendments have to be approved by 3/4 of the States.

Article 6 (Debts and Oath.)
Debts by the US, pre this Constitution, are valid.
US laws, not in conflict with this Constitution, are valid.
Officials shall take an Oath to support this Constitution.

Article 7 (Ratification)
Ratification of this Constitution at Convention required
by 9 States; 12 States did so Unanimously, 9/17/1787:
NH, MA, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, VA, NC, SC & GA.